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Chicago Style Guide: Citation Examples & Formatting your Bibliography

When Writing your Bibilography...

The Chicago Manual of Style (also known as Turabian style) is used primarily in the fields of history and the natural sciences. 

There are two different ways to use Chicago style:

Notes and bibliography is used in some humanities disciplines such as literature and history.

Author-date system is commonly used in physical, natural, and social sciences.

**Make sure to consult your professor on which method is preferred for your course.**


Some Helpful Tips:

  • When creating your citation page, use Bibliography as your header at the top of the page.
  • Notes and bibliographies should be single-spaced internally; however, leave an extra line space between note and bibliographic entries. 
  • Indent all lines after the first line, by using a hanging indent. (Ctrl+T in MS Word.)
  • List entries in letter-by-letter alphabetical order according to the first word in each entry. 
  • For two to three authors, write out all names. For four to ten authors, write out all names in the bibliography but only the first author’s name plus “et al.” in notes and parenthetical citations. 
  • Write out authors and publishers’ names in full. Titles of articles, books, etc. should be capitalized.
  • Provide DOIs instead of URLs whenever possible.

About in-text citations:

Chicago uses a series of footnotes, or endnotes to give credit within your writing. A superscript letter is used, with the corresponding number at the bottom of the page or end of the book, citing the appropriate source. For more help, use the sources below, or ask us at the reference desk.


For more detailed information and examples, consult: